Helping the Community to Succeed

Alex Kpodonu Library





A Short Summary, by Prof. D. E. K. Amenumey

Department of History - University of Cape Coast - Ghana


        From the late seventeenth century Akwamu began to help Anlo in its wars with Ge and more importantly those with Ada and other states west of the River Volta.  A number of writers like Wilks, Kea and more recently Green and Acheampong have claimed Akwamu hegemony over Anlo.  The so-called evidence in support of this claim is however contradicted by the known facts.

        The Akwamu-Anlo relationship was one of a politico-economic alliance.  Through its alliance with Anlo, Akwamu was assured of regular supplies of salt and dried fish and the coastal markets to which she could take its slaves for sale.  For its part Anlo was assured of military assistance.  Since the late seventeenth century (1682) various witnesses and writers have testified to the persistence of this alliance.

        Despite the linguistic difference and the geographical separation between the two peoples, the Akwamu-Anlo entente was to endure into the nineteenth century.  So intimate and persistent was the relationship that some versions of Anlo traditions actually claim that the Akwamu also evolved from Ketu, like the Ewe.

        The alliance provided a wider dimension to the numerous wars that Anlo fought with the GE to the east and Ada and its allies to the west.  As a riposte to the Akwamu-Anlo alliance, Ge also found allies in the enemies of Anlo and Akwamu, to wit, Ada, Ga, Akwapim etc.

        The Anlo-Ge conflicts occupied the closing years of the seventeenth and the best part of the eighteenth centuries.  These conflicts derived from a clash of competing political and economic interests.  They came to an end by the close of the eighteenth century.  Neither state had succeeded in expanding permanently at the expense of the other, nor in absorbing it. 

        However, it is fair to state that the Ge state which, on the whole, proved the stronger of the two was only prevented by the actual or threatened intervention of Akwamu and Asante on certain decisive occasions.
On the other hand it would appear that Anlo was generally more involved in its conflicts with its western neighbours. 
        Anlo's quarrels with these people - Ada, Ga and Agave were mostly due to a clash of economic interests, squabbles over salt and fishing right in the Volta estuary and occasionally actual slave raiding.  The economic rivalry aided and abetted by other factors led to a number of battles in which the Ada, Agave and Ga were usually ranged against Anlo.

        These wars started around 1750 and lasted well into the nineteenth century.  There exist documented accounts of hostilities in 1750, 1769, 1776 and 1780.  It was the signal defeat that Anlo inflicted on Ada on 26 October 1780 when it surprised Ada, defeated it and burnt the town that provided the background to a subsequent mobilization of forces against Anlo by the Danes in 1784. 

        This was because the Anlo victory threatened the Danish company which had built a commercial lodge at Ada and which was now trying to dominate the entire coast east of Accra. The fact is that even though European nations and trading companies had been operating in West Africa from the fifteenth century onwards, the EWE coast had originally been free of European activities because of its "burning surf". 

        The little trade done by Europeans was transacted on board passing vessels. But from about 1720 the Dutch and later the English and Danes began to establish lodges at Anexo, Aflao, Keta and Woe.  Beginning from the 1780's the Danes took advantage of the Anglo-Dutch war of 1780, which had weakened the Dutch position on the Gold Coast, to initiate a plan to establish their commercial dominance in the area east of Accra.

        This policy very quickly brought the Danish company face to face with Anlo which, following its defeat of Ada, now controlled the Volta river.  Furthermore, Anlo wanted to establish conditions in which it could dictate terms to the European traders and also pick and choose which of these it would deal with.  This attitude and the possibility of Anlo trading with Denmark's rivals stood in the way of Danish plans.

        The plunder of the Danish agent nicknamed "Sagbadre" (swallow) at Keta in 1783 provided a convenient excuse for the Danes to declare war on Anlo.  In March 1784 the Danish Governor of Christiansborg secured a force among the Ga, Ada, Krobo, Akwapim and Ge all of whom had by then become traditional enemies of Anlo.  An army of 4,000 troops heavily defeated Anlo. 
        The people had to flee and seek refuge with Wheta and Klokor in turn.  A number of Anlo towns were burnt.  Anlo was made to sign a peace treaty which was initialled on 18
th June 1784. Under its provisions the Danes secured the right to build a fort at Keta and a free passage through Anlo.  They also obtained the permission to set up a trading post at Anloga, the Anlo capital which had to be rebuilt. 

        Anlo was made to give an undertaking not to trade with any European nation other than Denmark, and not to take its canoes to sea.  These stipulations amply demonstrated what the war had really been about.  The terms of the treaty aimed at one thing - namely to make Danish commerce predominant in the ANLO area.  The construction of the fort began almost immediately afterwards.

        The military defeat of Anlo proved to be a blessing in disguise politically because it served to bind some of the neighbouring Ewe states to Anlo.  The lessons of the war were not lost on them.  The result was that other Dukorwo like Dzodze, Klikor, Fenyi and Wheta began to identify them with Anlo and to regard it as their champion against foreign imperialism. 

        The beginnings of what emerged more clearly later as the Anlo Confederation or Greater Anlo can be dated to this period. The Danish victory of 1784 did not lead to any effective imposition of Danish authority on Anlo.  The invasion did not achieve a complete pacification of the country.  In less than a decade the fragile Danish position at Keta was made untenable. 

        The hostility that was aroused against the Danish presence and the garrison of the fort at Keta in particular was to lead fortuitously to civil war in Anlo in1792.  This was the Somme war.  The people of Keta were forced to flee to settle on land given them by the people of Klikor.  Here they founded the state of Somme with its capital at Agbosume.

        From this time on the former people of Keta now the Somme ceased to be part of Anlo.  Blekusu, about five miles east of Keta became the eastern boundary of Anlo.  This secession of the former residents of Keta constituted one of the permanent political set-backs that Anlo suffered during the pre-colonial period.

        If Anlo suffered some loss of its territorial integrity during this phase, what happened to its rival to the east, Ge was even worse.  The Ge state evolved from the mixture of the local segment of the Ewe and the immigrants from Accra, Elmina and Ladoku from the seventeenth century onwards. 

        It spanned 15 towns, starting from east of Bagida to Agoue along the coast and extending inland up to the latitude of Voga.  Its most important towns were Glidzi the capital and Anexo (Little Popo) the commercial centre.  The component towns had their own chiefs who were subordinate to the king of Glidzi.

        Fairly early, Anexo acquired a position of prominence.  Being the only coastal port of the Ge it took on an aspect of importance.  It was the one place where foreign and local trade was transacted.  It was at the base of the economic development of the entire state.  Because of its favourable commercial position Anexo began to steal the limelight from Glidzi, at least as far as external affairs were concerned. 

        In the accounts of the Europeans the name Little Popo (Anexo) came to be applied to the entire Ge state.  The king of Ge was called the king of Little Popo while in reality his seat was at Glidzi. The Ge consolidated their position in the area of their settlement and engaged in wars and a series of alliances that would guarantee their security. 

        During the course of the late seventeenth and eighteenth centuries they periodically extended their political power westwards over BE and Aflao and even further west occasionally.  For example in 1792 they helped the former residents of Keta to defeat Anlo.

        They also engaged in conflicts of one kind or the other with their neighbours to the east - Aja and Fon.  Though they won individual spectacular battles they did not extend their control over the peoples to the east.  In fact the effective establishment of Dahomey along the Aja coast from the 1730's put paid to Ge ambitions there.  In fact by the end of the eighteenth century Ge political control became restricted once more to the original frontiers.

        From this time the capital began to degenerate apparently due to internal squabbles within the royal house and collateral lineages.  On the other hand Anexo continued to rise to prominence thanks to the enterprise of its inhabitants who engaged actively in trade.  Before the end of the eighteenth century Anexo had become the most important Ge town.

        This subversion of the traditional political hierarchy and system became accentuated during the course of the nineteenth century.  Just as Anexo had eclipsed Glidzi in importance because of the wealth it drew from its trade with the Europeans, in like manner the most prosperous lineage in Anexo began to challenge the legal political head - the chief of Anexo.

        The position of chief of Anexo became the object of rivalry, which in turn interfered with the customary obligations of the office.  These disputes led to the opposition of the Lawson lineage - the most wealthy and best "educated" lineage to the ruling Adjigo family of Anexo.  In 1821 the Lawson family inaugurated a rival chieftaincy in the town.

        Henceforth, two lines of chiefs continued to reign concurrently over different sections of Anexo, each claiming to be the rightful chief of the entire town.  The rivalry flared into open war again in 1835. These developments in Anexo did not only affect the position of the chief there, but the authority of the king of Glidzi as well and the cohesiveness of the Ge as the polity. 

        Ge society divided into two groups - one around the king residing at Glidzi, the other around the "Caboceers" i.e. the notables of Anexo - the Adjigo and Lawson were richer and more powerful than the king at Glidzi.
The conflict between the Anexo factions completely discredited the authority of the king of Glidzi. 

        From the mid-nineteenth century travellers' accounts it is clear that the Ge state had disintegrated into a collection of politically independent towns.  Agoue, Porto Seguro, Glidzi, Anexo were all described as autonomous.  This position contrasted vividly with those of Anlo and Peki, which by this time - the middle of the nineteenth century had either increased their political influence or extended their frontiers.

        Anlo's relations with Akwamu contrasted sharply with that of Peki and neighbouring states known collectively as Krepi.  Krepi was the vague term by which Europeans in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries designated the north-western part of the Ewe territory.  Broadly speaking it approximates to the dialect group that the people themselves call "Weme".

        Krepi was not a single political entity but comprised a number of states or towns, which were independent of one another.  Peki was the most renowned of these, but others were Ho, Kpando, Alavanyo, Taviefe and Hohoe.  During the first half of the eighteenth century, Akwamu, which built up a strong empire in the south-eastern part of the Gold Coast, extended its authority over Krepi also.

        In July 1707 a large Akwamu army crossed the Volta and fought a number of engagements with some Krepi towns such as Ho, Kpando and Peki.  It appears however that it was in the years after 1730 that Akwamu came to establish its suzerainty over Krepi.  In that year Akwamu lost the western half of its empire following a severe defeat by Akyem and others. 

        A section of the royal family retired to the eastern territories of the former empire and founded a new capital Akwamufie in the Volta gorge. It was during the period after this settlement across the Volta that Akwamu really subdued the Krepi.  By the close of the eighteenth century it had imposed some form of suzerainty over most, if not all the Krepi towns. 

        There were economic reasons that motivated Akwamu domination of Krepi.  The Krepi towns were strategically placed on the important trade routes and along the river Volta that linked the coast with the important market centres up to Kratchi and Salgha and beyond.  Slaves could be obtained in the northern centres and in Krepi itself and taken to the coast. 

        By maintaining a hold on Krepi, Akwamu could control traffic on the Volta and also land traffic between the coast and the north.  Besides, this would complement its policy of supporting Anlo in the latter's attempt to dominate the Volta estuary. Akwamu did not introduce any regular imperial administration over Krepi.  No viceroys or governors were posted to Krepi towns, as for example had been the case in Ningo and Ada. 

        The local chiefs continued to perform their usual functions but Akwau exacted tribute in kind - mostly slaves, and in cash from the people.  This was enforced by periodic military expeditions and raids.  The Krepi towns also provided military assistance in times of war and were required to provide safe passage to Akwamu traders.

        Though Akwamu itself came under Asante suzerainty from the 1740's it retained its hold on Krepi. The latter still remained its vassal except that it now paid tribute to the Asantehene through the Akwamuhehe.  Alkwamu hold on Krepi was quite high-handed and accordingly thoroughly resented. 

        It was able to maintain this hold largely because of the lack of cooperation between the various Krepi towns.  Peki the strongest town enjoyed a favoured position in the Akwamu emporium and was actually employed by Akwamu to maintain its hold on the Krepi states.

        Only concerted action could end Akwamu domination, but this was not easily achieved.  Two futile attempts by Awudome in 1829 and Nyive in 1831 to throw off the Akwamu yoke are significant only in this respect that they illustrate the apathy and disunity among the Krepi states. 

        Rather than come together to fight for their independence, some states like Peki together with other non-Ewe towns like Boso and Anum actually fought alongside Akwamu to subdue the defiant towns. The third attempt in 1833 was to succeed because it was spear-headed by Peki and also because it involved concerted action by all the Krepi states and towns. 

        As part of the preparatory groundwork chief Kwadzo Dei of Peki organized an alliance of the Krepi states.  Together they defeated Akwamu and regained their independence.  Peki emerged from the war as the leader of a new bigger territorial unit.  During the war nearly all the Ewe states north of Adaklu and west of Palime united under its leadership.

        There are conflicting views about the exact nature and import of the 1833 alliance.  One is that it was merely a war time entente while the other is that it was meant and actually constituted a permanent union.  Peki has always maintained that it was a permanent affair and that after the conclusion of the war the other chiefs made Kwadzo Dei of Peki their head and subordinated their stools to Peki. 

        This claim has been hotly denied by some of these states and peoples. It appears from the evidence available that apart from the towns in the neighbourhood of Peki like Anum, Boso, Awudome, Abutia, Hlefi, Aveme, Sokode and Anfoe. Peki had no real claim to and exercised no suzerainty over the other Krepi states or towns.  The former states recognized Peki's leadership for a long time after the 1833 war. 

        In the case of Boso, Anum and Awudome a permanent union with Peki was created.  This is borne out by the fact that since then Boso and Awudome acquired the right to enstool the Fia of Peki. The chiefs of the states outside greater Peki did not require recognition from the Fia of Peki or paid him any tribute.  All the same the various Krepi states and towns appeared to regard Peki as their protector and paid some measure of deference to its leadership.

        By the middle of the nineteenth century the political outlines of the territory of the Ewe people had long been fixed more or less.  There was no centralized government embracing the entire country.  The few attempts at territorial aggregation had achieved only limited success.  The people were still split into a number of Dukorwo or states of varying sizes and military potency.  On the other hand some of these had come together to form bigger political units.

        The two most important of these states were Anlo and Peki.  Except for the state of Somme which was separate from Anlo, the political authority and or influence of the Anlo King now extended far beyond the traditional 36 towns to includes all the area roughly east of the Volta to Aflao and extending inland up to the southern boundary of Adaklu but excluding the majority of the Tongu states along the Volta. 

        The 13 Tongu states were independent of one another but subject to the competing influences of Anlo, Ada and Akwamu. Further inland, Peki had formed a big composite state with Awudome and the Kyerenong states of Boso and Anum and their environs.  Furthermore, in his capacity the leader of the alliance that overthrows Akwamu, the king of Peki had acquired some prestige in the eyes of the members of the erstwhile alliance.

        Though not a political unit, these states shared some degree of understanding. In between Anlo and the Krepi states lay the state of Adaklu, which was autonomous.  It belonged to neither group but the superior power of Anlo and Akwamu usually swayed it to their side.  Further east there were no big political units.  The former paramountcy of GE had disintegrated into a collection of virtually independent towns. 

        The only state of any considerable size was Ave.  It comprised eight divisions each of which had its own chief, but all of these were subordinate to the king at Keve. This situation of separate and individual existence on the part of the Ewe states was to be ended by the imposition of colonial rule towards the end of the nineteenth century. 

        When that phase in turn came to an end by about the middle of the twentieth century the Ewe territory remained split between the independent republics of Ghana and Togo.



This is a country in Guinea and is a member state of the Scandinavian Realm. Its capital, Akra, is a condominium with the Gold Coast. It is based around the coastal port of Osu (Christiansborg), which is a major import and export city for both raw materials and arts and crafts.



The south-eastern part of the country is dominated by the coastal savannah, including the Krobo Plains, Akra Plains, and the Volta River Delta. The Volta river empties through Gadangmeland. Its delta forms numerous lagoons, some quite large, where salt-making is done.

Further inland, the Akwapim Ranges in the north-western part of Gadangmeland are a range of high hills averaging 1500 feet in height. The ranges are largely covered with rain forests, and their higher elevation provides a relatively cooler, pleasant climate. In addition to the cultivation of rice and other staples, coffee plantations are also found there.


The country borders Western Gold Coast to the north and west, Togo the east, and the Atlantic Ocean to the south.



Gadangmeland is located in the dry tropics with two seasons: wet and dry. The amount of rain that falls in a given area depends on the wind and topography.

In Gadangmeland, the seasons are influenced by the movement and interaction of the dry dusty Harmattan winds, which blows from the northeast from the Sahara, and the opposing moist southwest monsoon winds coming in from the Atlantic. The Harmattan season starts in December and lasts until March. It is then followed by the wet season for the rest of the year. In Gadangmeland most of the rains fall west of the Akwapim Ranges.


Early History

In the beginning of the 17th century, commonwealth of Adangme tribes was created forming the Chiefdom of Ga. It was the first centralized chiefdom on the Gold Coast with its capital was at Okaikoi, near present-day Ayawaso. Its cultural influences spread to other cheifdoms along the Gold Coast, and slave provinces, where Ga traders could purchase Akan slaves, were established at Akwapim and Akwamu.


By about the middle of the 17th century, Europeans had begun trading along the coast and the Ga capital was moved to Akra. Ga began to dominate coastal trade with the interior people. They established a market at Abonse, a few miles north-east of Akra. By doing so, the Ga succeeded in confining the Akim and Akwamu traders to this market to trade only with them, and prevented them from coming into direct trading contact with the Europeans on the coast. The Akim Chiefdom essentially becomes a vassal of the Ga Chiefdom.


The Slave Trade

Scandinavian activities in the Gold Coasts started in the mid-17th century when Denmark-Norway and Sweden each established trading companies to trade in Guinea. In 1649, the King of Sweden granted Batavian traders privileges to establish the Svensk Guinea Compagnie (Swedish Guinea Company) to trade with Africa. Denmark-Norway followed suit in 1651 when the King of Denmark-Norway granted Jewish traders from Glückstadt in Holstein the right to establish the Dansk Guinea Compagnie (Danish Guinea Company).


The Swedes established Fort Carlsborg in Cape Coast in 1650, and in 1652 they also established a trading lodge in Osu, which was conquered by the Danish-Norwegians in 1658. The following year, in 1659, the Danish-Norwegians conquered Fort Carlsborg in Cape Coast and rename it Frederiksborg Castle and established their base of operations there. However, the Danish Commander of Carlsborg was shortly after tricked into believing that Denmark-Norway had been conquered by the Batavians. He therefore sold Carlsborg to the Batavians and with it the former Swedish establishments, including Osu lodge. The Ga Paramount Chief Okaikoi, disgusted with their trickery, asked the Batavians to leave Osu. In 1661, Jost Cramer, Danish governor of Frederiksborg acquired land from Chief Okaikoi for 3200 gold florins. The Danish-Norwegians built a stone fort in Osu to replace the earthen lodge and named it Christiansborg (Christian's fortress) after the former King of Denmark, Christian IV, who had died in 1648.


By 1663, the Swedish Guinea Company was bankrupt and the Danish Guinea Company purchased all Swedish claims in Africa. In the course of the following years some other fortified trading posts were built. The primary purpose of these forts was to gather slaves purchased from the locals to be shipped off to the West Indies, particularly the Cruzan Islands.

The triangular trade between Europe, Guinea, and the West Indies proved lucrative that the Dansk Guinea Compagnie (Danish Guinea Company) and the Dansk Vestindiske Compagnie merged to form the Dansk Guinea-Vestindiske Compagnie in 1674.


In 1677, the Battle of Nyantrabi took place. The Akwamu, wishing to have direct trade with the Europeans, engaged Akra in battle, which resulted in the decisive defeat of Ga by the Akwamu. Akim gained full independence and Ga became a vassal of Akwamu. The other Adangme chiefdoms became independent as well.


In 1680, the Portuguese conquered Christiansborg, only to abandon it in 1682 to the Akwamu. The following year, the Danish-Norwegians retake control of Christiansborg by force.


In 1685, the Austro-Dalmatians conquered Frederiksborg Castle, renamed it Cape Coast Castle, and established it as their capital of the Austro-Dalmatian Gold Coast. The Danish-Norwegians are forced to move their base of operations to Christiansborg. The Dano-Norwegian strategy from then on became a move of expansion east of Christiansborg to eventually dominate the entire Volta River delta.


In 1739, the local political situation became reversed once again when the Ga-Adangmes regained their independence from Akwapim, and Akwapim then became a vassal of the Ga.


Period of Enlightenment

Responding to the appeal of the king of Denmark-Norway, Frederik V, many German missionaries began arriving in Gadangmeland in the 1750s.

In 1755, the Crown purchased the majority of shares in the Dansk Guinea-Vestindiske Compagnie and turned it into the Kongelige Guinea-Vestindiske Handel (Royal Guinea-West Indian Trade Department). The Danish-Norwegian establisments in Gadangmeland then became a crown colony under the corporatocracy of the Kongelige Guinea-Vestindiske Handel. The establishments became known as Dansk Guinea (Danish Guinea).


In 1783, the Battle of Anlo took place when the Ewe Kingdom of Anlo came into conflict with the Danish-Norwegians after they had attacked and killed a Danish trader. In the battle that ensued, the Danes were supported by the Ga, Ada, Akwapim and Akim, all traditional enemies of the Anlo. The Anlo were defeated and were thus under the dominion of the Danes. The Castle of Prinsensten is built in Keta near Anlo.


That same year, Paul Erdmann Isert arrived in Christiansborg as chief surgeon. His experiences in Gadangmeland and in the West Indies prompted him to try to end the slave trade. He found the slave trade absurd and wanted to demonstrate that Europeans should have been establishing plantations in Africa itself, rather than shipping thousands of Africans to the West Indies. To this end, and financed by the Danish-Norwegian Crown, he established a few plantations in Gadangmeland in 1788.


Although he was assassinated the following year, the Crown was convinced of the feasibility of his project that Denmark-Norway became the first country to ban the slave trade in 1792 (fully effective in 1803).

By the time Denmark-Norway united with Sweden to form the Scandinavian Realm, experiences learned from Isert's projects prompted the new Crown to initiate projects to irrigate the entire coastal savannah region in Gadangmeland.


During the first half of the 19th century, the Scandinavian Realm and the Federated Kingdoms waged a campaign against the Austro-Dalmatian slave-traders. Slaves freed by Scandinavia were given land in Gebaland and the Pepper Coast, two settlements originally established by Denmark-Norway for free negroes of Gadangmeland and the Cruzan Islands wishing to return to Guinea.


Until 1820, Christiansborg served as the residence of the Scandinavian governor of Danish Guinea, which also included the Gebaland and Pepper Coast settlements. Christiansborg served as the educational center of Danish Guinea as well. Legonberg University, established in 1827, rapidly became a magnet for Negerhollands-speaking Africans. For more than a century, it was the only European-style University in Guinea.



The Effects of Katamanso War

In 1826, Gadangmeland fought in the Katamanso War. This was, perhaps, the greatest set-piece battle West Africa has ever known and the turning point of Gadangmeland history. The Ashantis (Akans), who were the native inhabitants the inner Gold Coast, become very aggressive. Ashanti and its ally, Akim, sent 40000 warriors to subdue the Ga-Adangmes in the Krobo plains. The Ga-Adangmes and their allies (the Awutu-Adangmes, the Krobo-Adangmes, the Ada-Adangmes, the Akwapim-Akans, the Akwamu-Akans, the Anlo-Ewes, who were on the side of the Scandinavians) numbered only 15000 (including only 60 Scandinavian soldiers). But they managed to defeat the Ashantis. This "Gadangmeland Alliance" (between Ga-Adangmes, Krobos, Akwapims, Akwamus, Anlos, and Scandinavian colonists) remains to this day.


During the war, the population of Gadangmeland nearly halved. The main historic occupation of the African people had been pastoral farming until this point, when so many of the pastoral farmers died, while most of the Europeans had been the Scandinavians and Germans administering the nation. Many of the remaining farmers moved to Christiansborg, developing a unique blend between the African, Scandinavian and German cultures called Gadang-mena. In the following decades, many Cambrians, Castilians, Germans and Scandinavians flocked to see this, which means that now, there is an equal number of Africans and Europeans. In fact, following this, most people are descendents of both freed African slaves and Cambrians, Castillians, Germans or Scandinavians.


Colonial Division and Independence

In 1833, the Gold Coast was divided into spheres of influences between Batavians, Austro-Dalmatians, and Scandinavians. The Scandinavians wanted influence over the Ga-Adangmes, Krobos, the Adas, the Awutus, the Anlo-Ewes, Akwapim, Akwamu, and Akim. But an infamous Scandinavian mulatto slave-trader, Henrik Richter, tried to bribe the Henes of Akwapim, Akwamu, and Akim not to sign the agreement with the Scandinavians. By this time, only the Austro-Dalamatians were active in the slave-trade, and he was aware that the Scandinavian government would be better able to enforce their ban on the slave-trade in their sphere of influence. Richter only managed to persuade Akim to avoid meeting with the Scandinavians, and it ended up under the Austro-Dalmatian sphere of influence.


In 1847, in an attempt to ease the transition from slavery to freedom, the government of the Scandinavian Realm made a proclamation that stated that from then on all children born of slaves were free while the parents would become free within the next 12 years.


In 1850, after repeated harassment by the Ashantis, the Austro-Dalmatians in the Gold Coast decided to move their capital to their castle in Akra. The climate near the Akwapim highlands was also regarded to be friendlier for Europeans. Akra then became a condominium capital between Gadangmeland and the Austro-Dalmation Gold Coast colonies when on 1850 Mar 30 the agreement on Condominium was reached, which stipulated that Austro-Dalmatia must also ban the slave trade.

By 1859, all the slaves in Gadangmeland were granted emancipation. Many slaves in the Austro-Dalmatian territories surrounding Gadangmeland sought refuge in Gadangmeland.


In 1900, it became clear to the chiefs in Gadangmeland that the Austro-Dalmatians were very dominant in West Africa, and that European protection was the only way to ensure some independence. So the Mantses (chiefs) of Gadangmeland agree to make Gadangmeland a Scandinavian protectorate.


Recent History

Gadangmeland suffered greatly during the Second Great War. It was invaded and occupied by Ashanti in 1945; many people, including civilians, were killed during this invasion and many buildings were damaged. Afterwards, entire population of Gadangmeland was deported to avrious places of Ashanti in order to make them assimilate with the Ashantian culture. Diseases and povetry struck the deported people in the places of deportation; they were forced to live poorly. During the invasion and due to deportations, around 27% of Gadangmeland's citizens perished. People of Gadangmeland were permitted to return only in 1947, when the Scandinavian Realm had liberated the territory.


Since the GWII, the Scandinavians have developed a great industry, with many factories. The League of Nations often recieves complaints that the Scandinavian government allows transnational companies to settle here and pollute the atmosphere. The Scandinavian government states that they are improving the economy of the nation.


In 1953, Gadangmeland became fully independent but decided to remain within the Commonwealth of the Scandinavian Realm - in personal union with the Scandinavian King and in free association with the Commonwealth government. This gesture was formalized with the enstoolment of King Frederik the IX of Scandinavia as Grand-Mantse (Grand Chief) of Gadangmeland. The local chiefs retained their traditional rights over the traditional states, while the local Scandinavian colonists retained their rights along the coastal settlements and their plantations.

In 1964, the Akosombo Dam was built, a joint project between Gadangmeland and the Gold Coast and with Scandinavian and CSDS aid.



Most mail comes in and out of Christiansborg by Zepplin from Gøteborg daily. Rikets Radio has offices in Christiansborg, serving Gadangmeland and subscriberes in the Gold Coast, with Gadangme programming.



Prior to the colonisation by Scandinavians, most Gadangmes were animists, called Fetishism, which is a recognized religion within the Scandinavian Realm. However, most people are now Evangelic Lutheran Christians, as that is the official religion of the Scandinavian Realm. There is a Mormon temple in Osu.